What do size marks on bicycle tyre package mean, how to “read” them, which bicycle tyre size can fit a given rim? This post answers all those questions, providing an easy, uniform, standardized way to tell a tyre (tube and rim) size using ISO (ETRTO) standards. For detailed tube sizing gude, see: Bicycle tubes – types, valves and sizing explained. Effect of tyre size on speed and comfort is explained here: Are narrower tyres “faster” – rolling resistance.
Table Of Contents (T.O.C.):
- Expressing (noting) bicycle tyre dimensions
Table 1: standard bicycle tyre sizes
- Tyre widths
Table 2: which tyre width fits which rim width
Table 3: which fat-bike tyre width fits which rim
Table 3b: Schwalbe’s complete size chart
- Frame fit room (maximum width)
Table 4: real tyre height relative to its pressure and nominal size
Table 5: real tyre width relative to its pressure and nominal size
- Tyre size and fitting video
1. Expressing (noting) bicycle tyre dimensions
At first, tyre dimensions were expressed through mounted (and inflated) tyre outer diameter. That is why today we still often note tyre sizes like 26″ (now less often), 27.5″ or 29″ for MTB, and 28″ for road bicycles. A 26″ tyre fits on a rim with a 559 mm diameter. When a 2″ wide tyre is mounted on such rim, the outer diameter of such wheel with an inflated tyre is around 660 mm (26″). To further complicate things, different standards were made in different countries. This led to situations that same sized tyres were differently noted, or that the same dimension note was used for tyres that differ in size. Does this sound complicated and confusing already? 🙂 Here’s a picture that takes 26″ “size” as an example:
That is why ISO standard notation was introduced and is in use today. Standard was introduced by ETRTO (The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation). Diameter of wheel tyre bead seat in millimetres preceded by tyre width in millimetres. Tyre width is also a bit non-exact measurement. It is width of an inflated tyre mounted on a rim of standard width for that tyre size. However, the most important information: wheel bead diameter is noted exactly in millimetres, so there can be no confusion. 559 wheel and tyre are always compatible (at least in terms of diameter, see about tyre and rim width compatibility below).
When bead seat diameter (BSD) is known, a tyre of appropriate dimensions in mm is required. It is as simple as that.
For example, the 26″ wheel diameter is 559 mm and it can take practically any tyre of that BSD, whether wider, or narrower, such as 47-559 (26×1.75″ by old nomination), 60-559 (2.35×26″ by old nomination) and so on. All the manufacturers today mark tyres with ISO dimension standards, sometimes adding old nominations as well, but ISO is always noted and can be used as a safe(st) reference.
Standard road bicycle wheel size today is 622 mm and it usually takes tyres of 23-622, or wider 25-622. Today when off road bicycles with wheels larger than standard MTB wheels started to be popular, it’s wheels are marketed as 29″, but in fact are 622 wheels with wider tyres (so that outer diameter is close to 29″). Tyres for those bicycles are always marked with ISO standard (sometimes along with the “old” standard 29″) saying something like: 57-622, 60-622 and similar, depending on tyre width.
In case a tyre has no ISO (ETRTO) marks, here is a cross-reference:
|787 mm||36 inch|
|686 mm||32 inch|
|635 mm||28 x 1 1/2, 700 B|
|630 mm||27 x anything except “27 five”|
|622 mm||700 C, 28 x (two fractions), 29 inch, 28 x 1 1/2 F.13 Canada Road 28″ wheels and MTB 29″.|
|599 mm||26 x 1.25, x 1.375|
|597 mm||26 x 1 1/4, 26 x 1 3/8 (S-6)|
|590 mm||26 x 1 3/8 (E.A.3), 650 A|
|587 mm||700 D|
|584 mm||650B, 26 x 1 1/2, 27.5″ MTB 27,5″ wheels|
|571 mm||26 x 1, 26 x 1 3/4, 650 C|
|559 mm||26 x 1.00- x 2.125, also fatbike tyres up to 5 inches wide MTB 26″ wheels.|
|547 mm||24 x 1 1/4, 24 x 1 3/8 (S-5)|
|540 mm||24 x 1 1/8, 24 x 1 3/8 (E.5), 600 A|
|520 mm||24 x 1, 24 x 1 1/8|
|507 mm||24 x 1.5- x 2.125 – Big kids bikes with 24″ wheels.|
|490 mm||550 A|
|457 mm||22 x 1.75; x 2.125|
|451 mm||20 x 1 1/8; x 1 1/4; x 1 3/8|
|440 mm||500 A|
|419 mm||20 x 1 3/4|
|406 mm||20 x 1.5- x 2.125 – Kids small 20″ wheels, BMX.|
|390 mm||450 A|
|369 mm||17 x 1 1/4|
|355 mm||18 x 1.5- x 2.125|
|349 mm||16 x 1 3/8|
|340 mm||400 A|
|337 mm||16 x 1 3/8|
|317 mm||16 x 1 3/4|
|305 mm||16 x 1.75- x 2.125 – Kids 16″ wheels.|
|254 mm||14 x 2.00|
|203 mm||12 1/2 X anything. Small kids 12″ wheels.|
|152 mm||10 x 2|
|137 mm||8 x 1 1/4|
2. Tyre widths
After explaining tyre dimensions, a few words on tyre widths. Generally, narrower tyres are good for fast road riding on pavement, while wider tyres are better suited to rough terrain, or heavily loaded bicycles (heavy rider, carrying children or heavy baggage on a bicycle etc.). Depending on rim width, a range of tyre widths can be used. The important measure here is inner rim width. Outer rim width is irrelevant (for this purpose), just the inner rim diameter.
The following table tells the range of acceptable tyre widths depending on inner rim width, expressed in mm, according to ISO (ETRTO) standard:
Fat-bicycle tyre sizing chart:
Below is a chart which includes many modern (more recent) tyre and rim widths. It was made by the Schwalbe company and in my experience it is a safe guide (I’ve even exceeded the there-recommended ranges without problems). Both the dark-blue Schwalbe range, and the light-blue ETRTO range are fine – as long as you stay within either of those, you’ll be fine:
If a tyre that is too narrow is mounted on a wide rim, the rim can easily be damaged on a bump. If too wide a tyre is mounted, there is a risk of the tyre coming off a rim (with a loud explosion of the tube).
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3. Frame fit room (maximum width)
If there’s limited space for fitting tyres in a frame, note that rim width also influences tyre width and height when mounted:
It should be also noted that one nominal tyre size (e.g. 622-28), in various models and manufacturers, is not of the same actual width when mounted and inflated. Some models are known to be of a smaller “real” size, some are known to be larger. If, for example, the old tyre has a nominal width of 23 mm, and one considers replacing it with a wider one of 25 mm (nominal) width, and there is only about two mm extra room, it should be confirmed what the actual tyre widths when mounted are. If the old 23 mm tyre is among the “narrower 23s”, and the considered 25 mm one is among the “wider 25s”, it is very likely that the wheel will not fit into the frame with the new tyre.
Pictures below are taken on a frame with lots of extra room for wider tyres (and mudguards). They are just a demonstration of where the “tight” spots usually are, and where attention should be paid (and measuring taken) before going for wider tyres. Depending on frame geometry and brake type, some other spots may be the tight ones. It should always be checked and measured at the tightest spot, with the least tyre clearance – and that is usually in (one of) these places:
Table overview of how tyre inflation pressure affects its real height, depending on its nominal size (dimension) – inner rim width used or measuring was 19 mm:
|Tyre model and|
Grand Prix 4-Season
|27 mm||27.5 mm||28 mm|
|32 mm||32.5 mm||32.75 mm|
|22 mm||22.5 mm||22.75 mm|
Table overview of how tyre inflation pressure affects its real width, depending on its nominal size (dimension) – inner rim width used or measuring was 19 mm:
|Tyre model and|
Grand Prix 4-Season
|29.5 mm||29.7 mm||30.1 mm|
|34.7 mm||34.8 mm||35.15 mm|
|24.6 mm||24.8 mm||25.3 mm|
4. Tyre size and fitting video
Related post – To what pressure should I inflate my bicycle tyres:
58 thoughts on “Bicycle tyre sizing and dimension standards”
Thank you, really!
BW from Hungary!
I have a road bike and hybrid bike with front tire sizes 700×23 and 700×40. I want to get one wheel that can fit on both bikes (the wheel has an electric motor). I believe the road bike rim inner width is 15mm. Is it possible to fit a wheel with 17mm inner width on the road bike? Can the road brakes be adjusted to fit wider rim? Can i get brakes that will fit wider rim?
Short answer: yes, no problems.
Brakes on a rim with a 2 mm more outer width need to go out by just 1 mm at each side.
There is a tendency for road bike rims (and tyres) to go wider. For both comfort and aerodynamics (wider tyres being more aero on wider rims, than narrower tyres).
Your image showing the cross-section of 2 tires mounted on 3 different rims at different pressures looks like it may contain many errors.
The same tire is shown as being wider and taller on a wider rim, than it is on a narrower one. Assuming all have 622 bead seat, how is this possible? What’s more, it appears taller and wider at 75psi than it does at 100psi on the same rim.
It is counter intuitive, but yes, a tyre can get both wider and taller on a wider rim. Depending on rim’s inner width (bead seat width) and tyre’s width.
As for the rest – which cases in particular you think are problematic?
Most of them are problematic actually.
A 25mm [email protected] is same height but wider than the same tire @100psi on the same Ardennes rim.
A 23mm [email protected] is same height but wider than the same tire @100psi on the same Ardennes rim.
(the only 2 I’m not questioning is on the narrowest rim).
PS: can you follow the link to my website that I entered ( Velo76.com ) – it will redirect you to my FB group, you can see me there as admin (Timm S…) and add me. I’d like to bring something else up with you – it might be more productive to do it in messenger than a reply every few months on here.
Will do – though I reply almost daily on most comments here. Definitely not “every few months”.
As for the graph – [email protected] is mounted on a 20.7 mm inner rim width, while the 100 PSI graphs are made for 17.8 and 13.6 mm rim widths.
Wider rim makes tyre’s circumference effectively larger. That is the point. So it can be wider, while not being of lower height, even under a bit lower pressure.
I’d also like to raise the question of the TIRE VERSUS RIM WIDTHS in the table.
These types of tables can be very helpful, but I would like to give a word of caution about it. I’d like to illustrate my point with a personal experience, if you’ll just bear with me:
I went to slightly wider tires, up from my usual 23c-25c, to 28c, but didn’t change my wheels.
700x28C tires, mounted on 15mm inner width rims, at 80psi (this is the max for many affordable 28c tires, although a Continental can go much higher. The ones I had on that day were the Michelin Dynamic).
Cornering on asphalt, I could feel the back wobble as the tire tried was folding under the rim and redressing itself, ove and over, as it went over a very slightly uneven paved surface (just your usual city road). It would bend, then redress itself with rotation when the road dipped down slightly, then folded again. This felt very dangerous. Luckily it didn’t fold under completely, but had I gone a little bit faster, it surely could have.
So in this example, for a 15mm rim, 32c should be stricken off that line, and perhaps the 28C as well (80psi is the max on many 28c tires from Kenda to Michelin, so you can’t just say to up the pressure).
True, tire width and pressure depends on riding style and type of riding. A mountainbike, on dirt trails, can take much wider tires per rim width, than a road bike can. The MtB will slide on dirt surface, the road bike’s tires will grip and not slide, when cornering hard (unless you have very hard budget tires on the road bike).
I think you need to err on the side of safety here. And take off a at least 1 checkmark from the right on some of those “acceptable” tire sizes per rim widths. It won’t help a young enthusiast who likes to ride fast, and has an accident, slipping under a truck in a turn, because the tire flopped over, sending him into a high-speed slide (or off a cliff). It won’t help the more tame cyclist who is in an emergency situation and makes a sharp turn.
A 32c on a 15mm rim is definitely a no-no. 28C on the 15mm rim is debatable (sometimes safe, sometimes not as in my anecdote). In fact, the entire table could be shifted to the left, in order to be more accurate. I realize that some manufacturers will publish overly optimistic numbers, but that’s just because they want to sell more tires – and if they tell people to buy new wheels to get wider tires, they won’t be selling wider tires to folks who already have tires.
I ran 28 mm Continental Grand Prix 4 seasons on 13.5 mm wide rims with no problems. At 5 to 6 bar pressure.
For all I know, the table is more on the conservative/safer side – at least in my experience.
It is also my experience that manufacturers are more often “too conservative”, than “too optimistic” – probably in order to avoid any law problems.
Your feedback is valuable to me – it certainly requires more looking into. However, it does not align with my own previous experience, nor with the experience of other riders I know. For the given table, I took info from Mavic (as a rim manufacturer) and Schwalbe (as a renowned tyre manufacturer) – using the more conservative option in cases of any mismatch – and making sure it does align with my own experience.
I actually run Bontrager 28mm AW1 Front and 32mm H1 Rear on my 23mm rims very successfully for over 18 months now mostly road but some gravel paths too.
These are both off your chart on the left hand end of the scales.
These tyres were both ‘last in stock’ at my LBS at the time (hence different sizes) and sales assistant assured me it was ok and a good move from my 36mm Clement X’plore MSO chunkies provided with my gravel bike which made so much noise on the roads.
What you describe is tyre squirm, and it’s common with wider tyres at low pressure on narrower rims. I use 28mm tyres (various types over the years – IME those Michelins cut very easily on gravel) on 13.5mm internal width MA40 rims at about 80 PSI and have never felt that a tyre was going to roll off the rim or dump me on the ground – maybe I just don’t corner fast enough. I also use oversized tyres on skinny MTB rims and at low off-road pressure they will squirm on tarmac, so I just take it easy or add some air. There is another form of squirm, that’s caused by the tread moving relative to the tyre carcass, but that’s usually only noticeable with soft sticky knobbly tyres.
Hi, What size wheel do i need for a (58 – 559) 26 x 2.35 tyre and 7 speed.
Rim diameter should be 559 mm ISO (26″), while the rim’s wall inner width should be at least 21 mm.
As for the 7 speed cassette – see this article:
Thanks for such a nice explanation. First a little background. I have a Drag bike Rodero TE exact specification like this one here; dragzone. bg/en/drag-rodero-te-bike-2018. It originally can with the Schwalbe Spicer K-Guard, 30-622 tires though the rim is designated at these numbers: ETRTO 622x13c. There is also this numbering, ERD: 593, I am not sure what ERD means. Anyways, while the ‘conservative’ chart says rim sizes of 622 x 13c (700x 13c) can fit as far as 25mm (700x 25c), my bike came fitted with 700x 30c. I have had no problems whatsoever until I recently changed to Maxxis Relix (SilkShield, One70) 700x23c tires because it seemed fine that they will fit nicely and 25c ones were not available. The roads that I am riding these days are a combination of gravel and tarmac. I have had flat tires several times and seems to me that this purchase hasn’t paid off. I want to change my tires to gravel types ones but I am eternally confused with the sizes. Looks like my rim can take as much as 700x30c, should I look for these sizes for gravel type tires? Or should I buy a separate wheel-set dedicated to gravel? While having a new wheel-set sounds nice, I am not very sure if my rim brakes (mechanical) and the 10 speed Shimano Tiagra cassette will be compatible. What will be the best course of action? Thanks in advance.
ERD is “effective rim diameter” – relevant for wheel building, when calculating the optimal spoke lengths. In this video, at 6:40 I explain how it is measured:
As for the tyre sizes, the chart is rather conservative, at least in my experience. Also, some tyres are made “half a size” smaller, or larger, than what is noted on the sidewall. So you might “get away” with tyres wider than 25 mm on 13 mm rims. I would definitely measure the rim’s inner width just to be sure.
Having said this, wider rims will provide for more air volume inside the tyres, since tubes will expand more inside the rim, hence probably allowing for somewhat more comfortable ride with the same size of tyres, compared to narrower rims. The differences are not night and day, but they do exist.
I personally don’t like tyres narrower than 28 mm, even on road bicycles. Wider ones don’t need very high pressure, so they don’t have to be topped up too often and can be inflated with a small, cheap, portable pump that fits a patch kit easily. Also, lower pressure (wider) tyres are a lot less prone to punctures by sharp rocks, or glass shards, at least in my experience.
Hi. Thanks for your information in this article. I’m having trouble relating what I find in articles such as this to the tyre sizing for my daughter’s bike. She has a smaller bike being a child, 20 inch wheels. When I was shopping around for new tyres the narrowest I could find at 20 inch was 2.15 inch width. But the tyre I bought looks considerably wider than the existing one. I’m not sure it will fit. So i used your width table. Her inside rim width is 15 mm, and the table seems to suggest a max tyre width of 1.26”. But the tyre she has now is 1.5” and that looks fine. So I’m thinking that I have misunderstood what the tyre width in the table actually is.
Would you be able to help me check my understanding of the table? Thanks for any help you can give.
The given table is rather “conservative” – in terms that it gives combinations that will most certainly fit and work fine, with practically any rim and tyre make/model/diameter.
I have run combinations that are out of the limits given by the chart, with no problems.
So, to be on the safe side (without being able to see how the tyre fits a rim), the table should be respected.
Especially since some tyres are made to be a bit wider, or narrower than their sizing specifications show (depends on the manufacturer, and tyre model/mold).
Having said all that, bearing in mind that 1.5″ tyre is working fine, I wouldn’t shy away from using that width of tyres – just making sure they are seated well.
I have an old Gazelle city bike of 1973 with the tire dimensions of 28 x 1 3/8 x 1 5/8. It is quite difficult to find tires of those dimensions in my country, Indonesia. What is the alternative tire dimensions that suitable/compatible to the current tires dimensions? Any suggestion? thanks
Most tyres have ISO marks as well, especially ones made in the past 20 years.
If these don’t, however, I would try with 37-622 (32 mm wide “28 inch”) tyres.
I appreciate the information! Very clear and well thought out.
So, which two wheelers performance is better? Two wheeler with bigger tyre or two wheeler with smaller tyre?.
Please give me ans.
It depends. I wrote on that topic in the article:
Are narrower tyres “faster”?
Thank you for this helpful article. I have a 1991 Giant hybrid. The tires are original and they say 26 x 1.38. The brochure says the tires are 38mm. But when the tires are inflated (85 psi per the sidewall) measuring as you show above the tires are only about 30mm wide. So what size tire should I buy to replace these and be as close to the originals as possible? Thank you!
I don’t know.
Different manufacturers, even different models of the same manufacturer, often end up with different widths (and heights) when inflated.
Another dilemma is whether to go with such narrow tyres for 26″ wheels. In my experience, 1.75″ (47 mm nominal width) are the sweet spot between ride comfort, handling and speed. For off-road, if going with knobby tyres, I go even wider.
Thanks for replying! I don’t think 1.75″ or even 1.5″ tires would actually fit my bike. It is like a hybrid but much more like a road bike than a mountain bike. Giant called it AFS (All-Terrain Fitness Sport), and these 26 x 1.38 tires are what came on it. I found the original brochure for it, and it says in one place that the tires are 38mm but in another place it says they are 26 x 1.38. Based on my measuring, I think they are 1.38″, not 38mm. I’m going to give it a go with a 26 x 1.4 and if the doesn’t work, I’ll try a 26 x 1.35. It is thanks to your article that I have a clue about all of this, so thanks so much!!
“559 wheel and tyre are always compatible.”
Some people may not read down as far as the rim/tyre width table.
I’ve seen some fairly incompatible combinations in use that “fit”, mostly too skinny tyres on bikes they want to “go faster” (all those bumps sure feel fast). I’m off the other side of the chart, running 28mm tyres on my road bike since 1990; it seems fashion has finally caught up with me (in tyre width at least).
Well noticed. I edited the article. Thanks. 🙂
A brief question from me, is it true you can use 27 inch inner tube on 700 x 35c tire? 🙂
Yes. At least all the ones that I’ve come across.
Hi, I have a ktm bike with fat tyres, 27.5 x 2.25. I would like to change the tyres without changing the rim, but i dont know if they will be compatible. The rim says “ktm taurus 27.5 ertro 584 x 21 made by ryde”. And the tyres I would like to fit are “schwalbe marathon plus 27.5 x 1.25 or 1.5. Do you know if its possible? Thanks
Based on the info you provided, the new tyre matches the BSD of the rim.
All that’s left is to measure the rim BSD width – as explained in chapter 2 of this article.
Then look at the table 2 below to see if the tyre is a match.
If the rim’s BSD really is 21 mm, 1.5″ wide tyres will fit nicely, but 1.25 are not a perfect match.
Also, 1.25 is what I would consider a bit too narrow for a 27.5″ wheel.
1.5″ is closer to what I’d call “the sweet spot” in terms of tyre width for such wheels.
Thanks for all the good advise and suggestions It still left me with a question:
I have a Shimano Ultra WH6800 Wheelset. I would like to put tape on the wheelset, however I don’t know the correct width of the tape to useThe tubeless tire size is 700 x 25 from Schwalbe.
I appreciate your expertise and knowledge
– Measure the rim’s internal width (first picture in 2nd chapter of this article – showin 19 mm in that case)
– Add 3 to 5 mm to what you’ve measured.
– You’ve got the optimal tubeless rim-tape width! 🙂
When the rim-tape is installed, its edges should climb a little bit up the “vertical” sides of the rim – but not too much.
The idea is to achieve two goals:
1) Prevent the rim-tape that is too wide, and climbs too high up the rim’s sidewalls, from interfering with the tyre seating onto the rim.
2) At the same time, by having the rim-tape slide up the sidewalls by 1 mm, or a bit more, keeps its edges covered by the tyre.
This prevents any air pressure from sliding under the rim tape, and “trying” to leak.
Also, when mounting, or removing a tyre, rim tape sides won’t get pushed by the tyre, or even by the tyre lever (accidentally), since the rim tape and the tyre will slightly overlap.
Basically: tubeless rim tape should fit a bit wider than I prefer with “standard” (tube tyre) rim tape, but still not too wide so it reaches the top of the rim.
I will add a drawing to the rim-tape article, explaining the optimal rim-tape widths for both tube, and tubeless tyres.
Hello and thank you for the article.
I would like some help. I have shimano rs 11 622*15c with gp400s2 25mm.
I would like to fit the new gp 5000 28mm. Do you think they will fit properly and will have a benefit from the 28mm or should i stick with the 25mm?
As you will probably know the gp4000s2 25mm are wider than the 25mm gp 5000.
Thank you in advance.
Measure the rim-s inner width and check table 2 to see if it will nicely fit the rim.
In my experience, 13.5 mm wide rims (and wider – up to, including, 19 mm) will work nicely with 28 mm wide tyres.
Before doing that, measure the tight spots on your frame with the current tyre (25 mm wide one).
Pictures in the chapter 3 of this article show these tight spots. The bike in the pictures has huge gaps, loads of clearance, but is good for the demonstration. If your bike has 3 mm, or more room, I’d expect the 28 mm tyres to fit.
If it has less, then even if the tyres do fit, the clearance will be too small in case something gets tuck on the tyre, or a wheel deflects even for a little (depending on where the tight spots are). I wouldn’t risk in that case.
An expensive solution for more comfort, if the 28 mm tyres won’t fit, is getting wider rims – with 17 mm inner with, and mounting 25 mm wide tyres – that will provide greater air volume, compared to 13, or 14 mm wide rims, without the tyre being much “taller” to catch onto the frame.
Thank you very much for your faat response.
Regarding the tight spots, my only concern is at the rear rim brake as you can see at the attached link. But as the gp 5000 28mm is slightly bigger than the old gp 4000s2 25mm, i don’t think i will have problem.
So in your opinion the 28mm tyres will fit ok at my roms and not be like “balloons” wich will lead in bad behaviour?
A new pair of wheels might come in summer, which will be wider so 28mm would be also a good investment. But for the time, a new pair of tyres is a must.
Great article man! I bought an old bike and trying to restore it. On my wheel it is engraved 28* 1 5/8, what does that mean in mm? 28 is for diameter, but what’s 1 5/8?
According to table 1 in this article, that’s probably a 622 mm tyre. The old, “exotic” dimension notation is not really exact. I’ve tried to explain it at the start of this chapter as best as I could.
In this particular case 1 5/8 probably refers to the tyre’s width, being about 1 and 5/8 of an inch. Which is roughly 40 mm, but I believe this tyre is closer to the ETRTO equivalent of 622-37.
Love your site, use it at the bike shop where I work sometimes. However you should update this article because it states the 26″ or 559 is THE mountain bike size when no major brand has made a 26″ MTB in the better part of a decade that’s not meant for children. It’s all 27.5″ and 29″ now and has been for some time.
Hahaha – laughing at myself now. 🙂
Yes, you are absolutely correct. Thank you. I’ll edit the article.
“Tell me I’m old, without saying that I’m old.”
– You say MTB when you mean 26″ wheels.