Table of contents:
1. Types of stems
….1.1. Quill stem
….1.2. Threadless stem
2. Important dimensions and how to measure
….2.1. Handlebar (clamp) attachment diameter
….2.2. Steering column attachment diameter
3. Stem dimension standards
….3.1. Handlebar clamp dimension standards
….3.2. Steering column attachment dimension standards
……..3.2.1. Threaded stems
……..3.2.2. Threadless stems
This post explains stem size standards in terms of steering column attachment and handlebar attachment at the opposite end of the stem. Other dimensions, such as stem length and angle will be explained in a separate post.
When purchasing, or replacing a stem, it is important to know what type and what size is needed. Both the side of steering column attachment, as well as on the side where the bars are attached. If bars are not already owned (at hand), author’s recommendation (personal preference based on knowledge and experience) is to choose a stem with a modern OS (“oversized) bar attachment diameter (table 1 lists the standard dimensions). Dimensions and type of steering column attachment depend on the fork, that is depended on the frame, so that’s something a bit harder to “change” – though, if choosing a frame, this author’s recommendation is to look for one with a 1 1/8″ steering column diameter and a threadless fork – for several reasons. The remainder of this post will explain stem types, important dimensions, how to measure them and, finally, list the dimension standards.
Quill stem is attached to the steering column by inserting it into the steering column and tightening a bolt on top of the stem, that pulls the quill upwards, making the lower stem diameter wider. Without much going into details and various designs, the basic principle is shown in picture 1.
Threadless stems have a slot at the steering column attachment end. It is fastened by sliding it onto the steering column, and then tightening the pinch bolt(s) that hold it fastened.
Stems are made with various lengths and angles. Picture 2a shows a quill stem with a shorter neck, angled downwards, next to a threadless stem with a longer neck. Lenghts and angles differ and are important when fitting a bicycle to suit a rider. However, in terms of (attachment) standards, important dimensions are the handlebar attachment diameter and steering column attachment diameter.
This dimension is measured practically identically for all the stems. The name says what it is. Measurement method is shown in picture 3.
Picture 3b doesn’t show clearly enough, but the calipers are placed at the inner side of the black part of the stem, just near the slit – there would be no use measuring at the slit itself, of course.
One could also measure the (outer) bar diameter (at the stem attachment point) – if a new stem is sought to match the bars.
For threadless stems, this is measured the same as the handlebar attachment diameter. Picture 4 says it all.
Of course, if a new stem is sought for a fork at hand, then the fork is measured. Picture 5 shows how.
After dimensions were defined and their measurement explained, now an overview of the standard dimensions will be given. First table will show bar attachment diameter standard. Second table will show threadless stems for attachment diameters. While the third one will show that for the quill stems.
|Handlebar attachment diameter – measurement units: mm (inches)||Standard name|
|22.2 (7/8″)||for steel bars of old MTB and BMX bikes|
|23.8 (15/16″)||Obsolete British standard common on old British 3-speeds|
|25||Obsolete French standard|
|25.4 (1″)||Standard ISO size, common for bars from the end of the 20th century|
|26||Italian road bike (and bar) standard. Obsolete|
|27||Titan – obsolete standard|
|31.7 – 31.8 – depending on how manufacturers round down the inch dimension which is (1 1/4″)||Modern “oversized” standard|
|35 (1 3/8″)||Easton standard|
|Stem “neck” outer diameter – measurement units: mm (inches)||Standard name|
|21.15 (13/16″)||Old American and BMX standard|
|22||Old French standard|
|22.2 (7/8″)||Standard for most threaded forks with an outer diameter of 25.4 mm (1″)|
|25.4 (1″)||Standard for most threaded forks with an outer diameter of 31.8 mm (1 1/8″) – not very common|
|Steering column outer diameter (and inner diameter for the attachment on the stem)||Standard name|
|measurement units: mm (inches)|
|25.4 (1″)||One inch standard|
|28.6 (1 1/8″)||1-1/8 inch standard|
|31.8 (1 1/4″)||1-1/4 inch standard|
|38.1 (1 1/2″)||1-1/2 inch standard|
Related post – Bicycle handlebar dimension standards: